Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-05-19 Origin: Site
An mRNA vaccine is a vaccine that uses a copy of a molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA) to generate an immune response.The vaccine delivers antigen-encoding mRNA molecules into immune cells, which use the designed mRNA as a blueprint to build foreign proteins normally produced by pathogens such as viruses or cancer cells.These protein molecules stimulate an adaptive immune response, teaching the body to recognize and destroy the corresponding pathogen or cancer cell.The mRNA is delivered by RNA complex formulations encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles, which protect the RNA strands and facilitate their uptake into cells.Reactogenicity, the propensity of the vaccine to produce adverse reactions, is similar to conventional non-RNA vaccines.Individuals who are susceptible to autoimmune reactions may experience adverse reactions to messenger RNA vaccines.
Compared with traditional vaccines, mRNA vaccines have the advantages of easy design, high speed, low production cost, induction of cellular and humoral immunity, and no interaction with genomic DNA.While some messenger RNA vaccines (such as the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine) have the disadvantage of requiring ultra-low temperature storage prior to distribution,other mRNA vaccines (such as the Moderna, CureVac, and Walvax COVID-19 vaccines) then there is no need for such a requirement.Among RNA therapeutics, messenger RNA vaccines have attracted considerable interest as COVID-19 vaccines.In December 2020, Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna licensed mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines.On December 2,Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency became the first medicines regulator to approve an mRNA vaccine, authorizing the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine for widespread use.On December 11, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency use authorization for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, followed a week later by the Moderna vaccine.
The first human clinical trial using in vitro dendritic cells transfected with mRNAs encoding tumor antigens (therapeutic cancer mRNA vaccines) began in 2001.Four years later, the successful use of modified nucleosides was reported as a method of transporting mRNA within cells without triggering the body's defense system.In 2008, reported the results of clinical trials of mRNA vaccines injected directly into the body against cancer cells,mRNA biotechnology.The DARPA grant was seen as a vote of confidence, which in turn encouraged other government agencies and private investors to invest in mRNA technology.DARPA allocated $25 million to Moderna at the time.The first human clinical trial using an mRNA vaccine against an infectious agent (rabies) began in 2013.Over the next few years, clinical trials of mRNA vaccines against many other viruses began. mRNA vaccines for human use have been studied against infectious agents such as influenza, Zika virus, cytomegalovirus, and chikungunya virus.In March 2022, Moderna announced the development of mRNA vaccines for 15 diseases: Chikungunya virus, COVID-19, Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Ebola virus disease, HIV, malaria, Marburg virus disease, Lassa fever, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Nipah and henipa virus diseases, Rift Valley fever, high fever with thrombocytopenic syndrome, tuberculosis, and Zika virus.
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