Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several antibody isotypes (also known as immunoglobulins) produced by vertebrates. IgM is the largest antibody and it is the first antibody to appear in response to initial exposure to antigen.   In humans and other mammals studied, plasmablasts present in the
Initially expected to be important for the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins, the J chain is in fact strongly (but not exclusively) dependent on the J chain for polymerization of IgA.  In contrast, aggregated IgM is formed efficiently in the absence of the J chain. The major for
An mRNA vaccine is a vaccine that uses a copy of a molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA) to generate an immune response.  The vaccine delivers antigen-encoding mRNA molecules into immune cells, which use the designed mRNA as a blueprint to build foreign proteins normally produced by pathogens such
The goal of vaccines is to stimulate the adaptive immune system to produce antibodies that are precisely directed against specific pathogens. The markers on the pathogens that the antibodies target are called antigens. Traditional vaccines stimulate antibody responses by injecting the antigen, a
The Mantoux test or Mendel-Mantoux test (also known as the Mantoux screening test, tuberculin susceptibility test, Pirquet test, or PPD test of purified protein derivatives) is a screening tool for tuberculosis (TB) and diagnosis of tuberculosis. It is one of the main tuberculin skin tests used in t
The results of this test must be interpreted carefully. Individual medical risk factors determine which increment of induration (5 mm, 10 mm, or 15 mm) is considered positive.  Positive results indicate tuberculosis exposure.• 5 mm or more is positiveo HIV positiveo People who have recently been
Saliva testing also has specific uses in clinical and experimental psychological settings. Because of its insight into human behavior, emotions, and development, it has been used to study psychological phenomena such as anxiety, depression, PTSD, and other behavioral disorders.  Its main purpose
The AbC-19 Rapid Antibody Test is an immunological test for COVID-19 exposure developed by the UK Rapid Testing Consortium and manufactured by Abingdon Health. It uses a lateral flow test to determine whether a person has IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19. The test use
A medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx, Dx, or Ds) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's signs and symptoms. It is often referred to as a diagnosis, with the medical background implied. The information needed for a diagnosis is usually gleaned from the patient'
The approach to differential diagnosis is based on the process of finding as many candidate diseases or conditions as possible that could cause signs or symptoms, and then eliminating or at least making the entries more or less likely through further medical testing and other treatments, aiming to r
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